indonesia

Our work in Indonesia includes monitoring, reviewing, and advocating for the implementation of the ICPD POA. ARROW was also involved in an intensive national project – the Indonesian Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Monitoring and Advocacy (IRRMA) project, an effort at using partnership to build capacities for evidence-based advocacy on SRHR. Our current initiatives in Indonesia are the Right Here Right Now (RHRN) partnership and the ICPD+25 monitoring programme.

Overview

 

The Republic of Indonesia, which consists of approximately 17,000 islands,  lies between Asia and Australia. Indonesia’s climate is tropical with two seasons. The dry season extends from May to October, and the rainy season extends from November to April. The population of Indonesia was 237.6 million in 2010. This makes Indonesia the fourth most populous country in the world after the People’s Republic of China, India, and the United States of America. An estimated 118.3 million people (50 percent of the population) live in urban areas. Indonesia’s per capita GDP was around USD $3,000 at its economic peak, reaching its peak in 2012.

 

The life expectancy at birth for both males and females has increased, from 58 to 69 years for males, and 62 to 73 years for females. The crude birth rate, which was estimated at 28 births per 1,000 population in the period 1986-1989, declined to 23 births per 1,000 population. The literacy rate among persons age 10 and older increased from 61 percent in 1971 to 92 percent in 2011.

 

Source: extracted from Indonesia Demographic & Health Survey (IDHS) 2012

 

Sexual and Reproductive Health

 

Key findings from the 2012 IDHS on the situation of SRHR in Indonesia are as follows:

 

Maternal Health:

  • The maternal mortality ratio is 359 deaths per 100,000 live births for the five-year period before the survey.
  • The age-adjusted maternal mortality rate for women age 15-49 is 0.27 per 1,000 women-years of exposure.
  • More than half (53 percent) of the mothers were informed of possible complications during pregnancy, an increase from 39 percent from the 2007 IDHS.
  • Male adult mortality is consistently higher than female adult mortality in every age group. The probability of dying is also higher among male adults than among female adults.
  • Ninety-six percent of mothers receive antenatal care from a skilled provider.
  • Eighty-eight percent of women make four or more antenatal care visits during their pregnancy.
  • Sixty percent of last-born children were fully protected against neonatal tetanus during the five-year period before the survey.
  • Eighty percent of women receive postnatal care in the first two days after delivery.
  • Eighty-three percent of births in the past five years were assisted by a skilled provider, an increase from 73 percent in 2007.

 

Contraception:

  • The total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey is 2.6 children per woman.
  • The total fertility rate in urban areas is slightly lower than in rural areas (2.4 children and 2.8 children respectively).
  • Virtually all women age 15-49 (98 percent) know about modern contraceptive methods.
  • Only 18 percent of Indonesian women know that the most fertile time for a woman is halfway between two menstrual periods.
  • Sixty-two of currently married women age 15-49 are using contraception, and 58 percent are relying on modern contraceptive methods.
  • Injectables are the most widely used method, followed by the pill (32 percent and 14 percent, respectively).
  • More than 7 in 10 current users obtain their method from a private sector provider, and 9 in 10 users report paying for their method.

 

Abortion:

  • The Guttmacher Institute in 2008 estimated three out of every thousand Indonesian women between the ages of 15 and 44 are hospitalized each year due to complications from botched abortions.
  • A study conducted in 2001 by Budi Utomo et al. estimates 2 million abortions a year in Indonesia. Unsafe abortion of 9-11 % contributes to high maternal mortality rate in Indonesia.

 

HIV & AIDS:

  • 77 percent of women age 15-49 have heard of AIDS.
  • Only 11 percent of women age 15-49 have comprehensive knowledge about AIDS.
  • 71 percent of women age 15-49 know that the HIV virus can be transmitted by using an unsterilized needle or syringe.
  • The majority of women age 15-49 (91 percent) believe that a woman who has recently given birth is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband.
  • Thirty-seven percent of women age 15-49 know that both using condoms and limiting sexual intercourse to one partner can reduce the risk of HIV infection.
  • Currently married men age 15-54 are more likely than women age 15-49 to express acceptance attitudes on all four indicators of stigma against HIV/AIDS (11 percent versus 9 percent).
  • On an individual indicator, 70 percent of currently married women age 15-54 are willing to care for a family member with AIDS in their own home.

 

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

 

Child Early & Forced Marriage (CEFM):

  • The median age at first marriage increases with level of education: 22.9 years among women age 25-49 who have completed secondary education compared with 17.2 years among women who have no
  • Only 13 percent of women under 20 are currently married compared with 60 percent of women age 20-24.
  • Fifteen percent of women age 45-49 had first sexual intercourse by age 15, compared with 6 percent of women age 30-34 and 3 percent of women age 20-24.

 

Violence Against Women (VAW):

  • One-third of all women age 15-49 agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for at least one reason.
  • However, more than 6 in 10 currently married women and more than 8 in 10 men do not agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for any of five reasons suggested.
  • The most widely accepted reason for wife beating is the wife’s neglect of the children (27 percent), followed by the wife going out without telling her husband (24 percent).