Following the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994, Thailand put forward a Reproductive Health Policy in 1997, stating that “all Thai citizens, at all ages, must have [a] good reproductive life”. Nevertheless, the 1997 Thai Constitution and the subsequent 2007 Constitution, drafted under a military government, made no specific mention of sexual and reproductive health or rights. Both constitutions reaffirmed that all persons are equal and shall enjoy equal protection under the law. This was to include all human rights. However, while equal rights in accessing public health services were identified, there was no specific mention of sexual and/or reproductive rights. Moreover, the equal rights of those who are not Thai nationals were in no way ensured.
According to Thailand’s ICPD+15 Report, published in 2010, Thailand has achieved most of the ICPD goals and objectives. Nevertheless, the report also noted that certain populations in Thailand still “require special attention and care such as youth, people in remote areas on highlands, and in the deep South, and marginalized populations such as migrants, ethnic minorities, sex workers, transgender populations, drug addicts, and prison inmates”. Of these marginalized groups, migrants—notably, migrant women—are the focus of this report.